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Exercise may benefit older people with dementia by improving their cognitive functioning and ability to carry out everyday activities, according to a new systematic review published in The Cochrane Library.
However, the authors of the review did not see any clear effect of exercise on depression in older people with dementia and say that more evidence is needed to understand how exercise could reduce the burden on family caregivers and health systems.
The long-term temperature consequences of the Earth warming by 2°C by the year 2100 have been severely underestimated and urgent strategies of emission reduction are needed to reach a more sustainable target.
An international research team that included Professor Eelco Rohling from the Australian National University's Research School of Earth Sciences assessed current global warming targets and trends in fossil fuel exploitation and published their results today in the journal PLOS ONE.
“Climate systems adjust slowly to temperature change, so any warming allowed by 2100 will be almost doubled in the following one or two centuries, even without further CO2 increase,” says Professor Rohling.
An investigation into the association between IVF treatment and melanoma found women who had IVF treatment and gave birth to one or two children had an increased rate of invasive melanoma compared with those who did not have children.
The results, recently published in Melanoma Research, show that among the women who had IVF treatment, giving birth was associated with a 3.6-fold increase in the rate of invasive melanoma.
However, giving birth made little or no contribution to the risk of invasive melanoma in women undergoing non-IVF infertility treatment.
In addition, they found no evidence for an association between IVF treatment and invasive melanoma among women who did not have children.
New research reveals that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) today have an easier time with daily living than patients diagnosed two decades ago.
According to results of the study published in Arthritis Care & Research, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), anxiety, depressed mood and physical disability have been cut in half over the last 20 years. Researchers believe a reduction in disease activity is partly responsible for this positive change.
Newlyweds know on a subconscious level whether marriage will be unhappy.
Although newlyweds may not be completely aware of it, they may know whether their march down the aisle will result in wedded bliss or an unhappy marriage, according to new study led by a Florida State University researcher.
The "new genetics" promises to change faulty genes of future generations by introducing new functioning genes using "designer sperm".
New research in The FASEB Journal suggests that altering genes in sperm, and then inducing fertilisation, produces new genes that are present and active in the embryos and inherited to at least the third generation.
Each square kilometre of Australian sea surface water is contaminated by around 4000 pieces of tiny plastics that could affect humans as well as marine life according to researchers from The University of Western Australia and CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship.
Their study, published in the international journal PLOS ONE, reported the plastic particles were mostly a result of the breakdown of disposable packaging and fishing gear made of polyethylene and polypropylene. These two polymers are commonly used to make everyday items, such as water bottles and plastic cups.
Lead author and PhD student Julia Reisser, from UWA’s Oceans Institute, said the plastics detected during the at-sea surveys could contain hazardous materials as well as pollutants absorbed from surrounding waters.
Australia’s limestone caves hold precious clues to Australia’s groundwater – the nation’s most important savings bank of fresh water, a leading water scientist says.
As the nation comes to rely increasingly on groundwater to sustain its cities, mining and agriculture, it will be crucial to find out how its aquifers get refilled in order to avoid over-extraction, says Professor Andy Baker of the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training (NCGRT) and The University of New South Wales (UNSW).
FDA’s warning to 23andMe is a welcome step toward responsible oversight, says Center for Genetics and Society.
The US Food and Drug Administration has ordered 23andMe to “immediately discontinue marketing” its direct-to-consumer genetic tests unless and until the agency grants it regulatory approval.
In a warning letter released on November 25, the FDA states that 23andMe’s saliva collection kit and Personal Genome Service are medical devices, and that they therefore must have premarket approval in order to be legally sold. The agency cites numerous marketing claims on the Google-backed company’s website to demonstrate that 23andMe itself sees its products as medical in nature.
A recently isolated bacterial strain converts waste from palm oil production into industrially useful lactic acid.
Southeast Asia produces over 80% of the world’s palm oil. Extraction of this oil generates copious amounts of the lignocellulose-rich by-product known as empty fruit bunch (EFB). This precious resource is largely wasted at present, being either burned or left to mulch on the ground. Jin Chuan Wu at the A*STAR Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences and co‐workers in Singapore have now identified bacteria that turn EFB into the industrially important chemical L-lactic acid.
The Chiropractors’ Association of Australia and the Chiropractic Board of Australia are the joint winners of the 2013 Australian Skeptics’ Bent Spoon award.
Three Australian Skeptics’ awards – the Bent Spoon and the much more sought-after Skeptic-of-the-Year and Thornett awards – were announced at a dinner on Saturday November 23 as part of the Skeptics' annual convention.
“The Bent Spoon is the least sought-after award in Australia”, says Richard Saunders, president of Australian Skeptics Inc. “It’s issued each year at the Skeptics annual convention to the ‘perpetrator of the most preposterous piece of paranormal or pseudo-scientific piffle’.”
Almost half of adults who are substance users show symptoms of an attention disorder and are more likely to have poorer treatment outcomes according to a multi-institutional international study.
Researchers from the National Drug Research Institute (NDRI) at Curtin University were a part of the first multinational study on the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with a substance use disorder (SUD).
NDRI Research Fellow Susan Carruthers says many adults who suffer from ADHD haven’t been correctly diagnosed which can lead to self-medication.
“People that have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are more likely to go on to use drugs and have problems with alcohol,” Dr Carruthers says.
Unusual El Ninos, like those that led to the extraordinary super El Nino years of 1982 and 1997, will occur twice as often under even modest global warming scenarios.
That is the finding of new collaborative research published in Nature led by the authors from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, which has for the first time revealed the cause of these events.
These unusual El Nino events differ from the more common kind in that sea surface temperatures start warming in the west of the Pacific Basin and spread eastwards. Under normal El Ninos, ocean surface temperatures first warm in the cold eastern Pacific and then expand west, in the direction of the Trade Winds and the ocean currents along the equator.
First large-scale analysis of white shark gene products finds fewer differences compared to humans than bony fishes.
The great white shark, a major apex predator, is one of the world's most iconic species. An intriguing question is what makes a white shark so distinctive? One way to address this is to explore the genetic makeup of this remarkable animal.
A new study by scientists from Nova Southeastern University's (NSU) Save Our Seas Shark Research Centre and Cornell University, published in final form in the journal BMC Genomics, now undertakes the first large-scale exploration of the great white shark's genetic repertoire, and comes up with unexpected findings.
Findings from a 15-year study published in Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica indicate that human error is the most common cause of infant asphyxiation at birth.
Inadequate fetal monitoring, lack of clinical skills, and failure to obtain senior medical staff assistance are most often cited in Norwegian compensation claims following birth asphyxia.
An organic geochemist has found fat molecules within fossilised remains in the central Kimberley’s Devonian Reef.
Curtin University PhD candidate Ines Melendez says the lipids are 380 million years old, or about 250 million years older than what had been the oldest known find of its kind.
“This is the first detailed molecular study … on a carbonate concretion from the Devonian Reef,” she says.
Her supervisor, Professor Kliti Grice, says the fossil was originally a crustacean that died in the oceans around the time of the Devonian mass-extinctions (more than 360 million years ago).
The world’s largest and oldest meteorite impact structure has been discovered through research on the formation of gold deposits in WA’s Eastern Goldfields.
Located in the eastern Yilgarn, the Watchorn Impact Structure (WIS) is 560km in diameter at its widest point and estimated to be more than 2.6 billion years old.
Geologist Bob Watchorn says he has been analysing the structure using gravity and seismic databases since 1999 but has only recently discovered the prima facie evidence necessary to confirm its impact origin.
“I pinpointed where the rings should cut the roads ... [and] you can see lines of hills heading perpendicular to the trend of hills in the eastern Yilgarn which is usually north-south,” he says.
A team of researchers from Gifu Pharmaceutical University and Gifu University in Japan has published results demonstrating that a type of protein found in stem cells taken from adipose (fat) tissue can reverse and prevent age-related, light-induced retinal damage in a mouse model, offering hope for those faced with permanent vision loss.
The research, published in the latest issue of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, has determined that a single injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) reduced the retinal damage induced by light exposure in mice. Also, the study found that adipose-derived stem cells in conditioned medium inhibited the retinal damage by hydrogen peroxide and visible light both in the medium and in live mice.
Moreover the research revealed that a type of protein called progranulin found in the ASCs might be what plays the pivotal role in protecting against light-induced eye damage.
Many surgeons are seriously affected on an emotional level by major surgical complications, and they often feel that institutional support is inadequate.
Those are among the conclusions of a study published in the BJS (British Journal of Surgery). The findings provide valuable insights into the factors that affect surgeons’ reactions to surgical complications and how surgeons could be better supported in their aftermath.
An international team of astronomers has answered a long standing question about the enigmatic jets emitted by black holes in research published in Nature.
Jets are narrow beams of matter spat out at high speed from near a central object, like a black hole.
“Although they have been observed for decades, we’re still not sure what they are made of, or what powers them,” ESO astronomer Dr María Díaz Trigo, lead author of the study, said.
The team studied the radio waves and X-rays emitted by a small black hole a few times the mass of the Sun. The black hole in question was known to be active, but the team’s radio observations did not show any jets, and the X-ray spectrum didn’t reveal anything unusual.