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Indigenous Genomics

Indigenous Genomics

By Emma Kowal, Simon Easteal & Mick Gooda

Mistrust is a significant but not insurmountable barrier to the acceptance of genomics by Indigenous people.

In 1994 Indigenous people around the world raised the alarm about scientists who wanted to steal their biological material, patent it and make drugs from it. The scientists were part of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), a companion project to the Human Genome Project that completed sequencing of the entire human genome in 2001.

A New Basis for Nuclear Structure

Evidence being sought that the structure of the bound proton and neutron has changed in a nucleus would herald a new paradigm for the structure of atomic nuclei.

Evidence being sought that the structure of the bound proton and neutron has changed in a nucleus would herald a new paradigm for the structure of atomic nuclei.

By Anthony Thomas

The idea that the internal structure of protons might change under certain circumstances is being put to the test, and could help to explain some inconsistencies in theoretical physics.

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Melbourne Observatory Celebrates 150th Anniversary

The Melbourne Observatory celebrates its 150th anniversary this month with a weekend of activities on 23 and 24 November.

Stargazers and history lovers are in for a treat this November when the Melbourne Observatory celebrates its 150th anniversary with a weekend of activities on 23 and 24 November.

A special, colourful historic re-enactment of the opening of the Melbourne Observatory in
1863 will open the weekend’s festivities.

Dressed in period costume, the re-enactment will include the original speeches from the
opening with appearances by the Governor of the day Sir Henry Barkly, Director of the
Gardens Ferdinand von Mueller, and the Government Astronomer Robert Ellery.

Turning Old Tyres into New Roads

Only five percent of tyres are recycled locally in Australia. Picture: Boomerang

Only five percent of tyres are recycled locally in Australia. Picture: Boomerang Alliance

By Holly Bennet, University of Melbourne

With millions of tyres dumped in Australia, a new innovation could turn used tyres into permeable surfaces - helping the environment and our future infrastructure

A staggering 51 million used tyres are discarded annually in Australia, causing environmental and health problems like the sea of stockpiled tyres in Stawell in western Victoria.

Only five per cent of used tyres are recycled locally in Australia, but researchers from the University of Melbourne have teamed up with Tyre Stewardship Australia and Merlin Site Services to come up with an innovative way to reuse the rubber.

How half our brain keeps watch when we sleep in unfamiliar places

By Masako Tamaki and Yuka Sasaki

Poor sleep in an unfamiliar setting may be linked to an important function of the brain to protect the sleeper from potential danger.

Have you ever arrived in a hotel room after a long flight and, despite being exhausted, found it painfully difficult to fall asleep? And even once you managed to get to sleep, did you still wake frequently in the night, or too early in the morning, feeling groggy and desperate?

Researchers have long known about this phenomenon in an experimental setting, terming it the “first-night effect”. Sleep study participants often sleep poorly during their first experimental session in a new environment and sleep quality usually improves dramatically on the second night.

China’s growing footprint on the globe threatens to trample the natural world

A queue of logging trucks in Southeast Asia. Credit: Jeff Vincent

A queue of logging trucks in Southeast Asia. Credit: Jeff Vincent

By Bill Laurance

China’s unprecedented development schemes are transforming the entire world, yet its leaders assure us these activities will be environmentally and socially sustainable. Should we trust the promises?

Many observers of China’s escalating global program of foreign investment and infrastructure development are crossing their fingers and hoping for the best. In an ideal world, China’s unbridled ambitions will improve economic growth, food security and social development in many poor nations, as well as enriching itself.

Such hopes are certainly timely, given the isolationism of the US Trump
administration, which has created an international leadership vacuum that China is eager to fill.

Death of Antarctic Physicist Marks End of Era

Dr Neville (“Nod”) Parsons in retirement.

Dr Neville (“Nod”) Parsons in retirement.

By Paul J Edwards

The death in Hobart on 30 December 2017 of 91-year-old Antarctic physicist and expeditioner Dr Neville (Nod) Parsons marks the end of an era of Australian Antarctic research and exploration.

Not many physicists have lent their names to a mountain as did Parsons to a “huge, sheer-sided” peak at the northern end of the David Range in Australian Antarctic Territory. This followed the first exploration of the David, Casey and Masson ranges in January 1956 by an Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition party of five led from Mawson by Antarctic explorer John Béchervaise over heavily crevassed ice. Béchervaise and Neville "Nod" Parsons were subsequently awarded Imperial Polar Medals for their work.

Top 10 science stories of 2017

By Joe Milton

2017 has been a bumper year for science yarns, from exploding neutron stars to a crashing spacecraft, and incredible advances in artificial wombs.

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Trump dumped Paris

‘Rock stars of the sea’ put on amazing underwater show in South Australia

Photo: Carl Charter

Nicknamed “the rock stars of the ocean” because they live fast and die young, cuttlefish have a life span of just 12-18 months, so impressive displays are necessary to attract a mate. Photo: Carl Charter

By Andrew Spence

Flowing arms, skins that change colour in an instant, dance battles and petite males disguised as females to trick their rivals – the courting behaviour of the alien-like Giant Australian Cuttlefish would look more at home in a Star Wars night club.

Each year more than 100,000 of the bizarre creatures gather in South Australia’s Upper Spencer Gulf Marine Park in what is the only known mass aggregation of its kind in the world.

Nicknamed “the rock stars of the ocean” because they live fast and die young, cuttlefish have a life span of just 12-18 months. This makes each May to August breeding season critical because the number of surviving eggs one year directly impacts the number of adult cuttlefish that return the next year to breed.

Personal Deterrents Can Reduce the Risk of Shark Bites

Credit: Andrew Fox / Rodney Fox Shark Expeditions

Credit: Andrew Fox / Rodney Fox Shark Expeditions

By Charlie Huveneers & Corey J. A. Bradshaw

A study tests how effectively commercial shark deterrents reduce the risk of shark bites.

Many things might explain why the number of shark bites appear to be increasing. However, the infrequent occurrence of such events makes it nearly impossible to determine why. Recently, an atypically high rate of shark bites occurred in Western Australia in 2010-2011 and on the north coast of New South Wales in 2015-2016. These highly publicised events — often sensationalised in both traditional and social media — have pressured governments to implement new measures to reduce the risk of shark bites.