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A round-up of the latest science and news from Australasia.

Security Cameras Get Smart

By Stephen Luntz

New security cameras will enable overstretched security staff to better focus their real-time surveillance.

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Growth Hormone Works in Part

By Stephen Luntz

The first scientific evidence that human growth hormone (HGH) benefits athletic performance has been produced. However, the effect is surprisingly narrow.

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Helicobacter Protects Against Cancer

By Stephen Luntz

The bacterium that causes stomach ulcers provides protection against an increasingly common form of cancer.

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Ice Loss Accelerates Warming

Image of Earth temperatures

The 28-year temperature trend for the autumn season. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

By Stephen Luntz

Climatologists believe they have confirmed what has been long suspected: the rapid loss of sea-ice from the Arctic is a result of a feedback cycle where global warming causes ice loss, which in turn causes more local warming.

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Wasp Gene Link to Autism, Schizophrenia

Image of wasp

The NRXN1 gene exists in three species of Nasonia wasps.

By Stephen Luntz

Genes believed to be implicated in autism and schizophrenia have been found in the sequencing of the genome of three species of parasitic wasp, indicating they are extraordinarily ancient and essential for animal survival.

The protein neurexin 1 is linked to learning in species as diverse as mice, humans and honeybees. Defects in the protein are common in families where autism and impaired social interactions are common.

Bee brains are flooded with neurexin 1 when they learn to associate odours with food. The protein helps form connections between neighbouring neurons, providing the linkage essential to the operation of learning in the brain.

Diabetes-Prone Gain More Weight

By Stephen Luntz

People with a family history of diabetes gain more weight than those without when consuming a similar diet, a Garvan Institute study has found. The research was published in Diabetologia.

Calorific requirements were carefully calculated for 17 people with a family history of diabetes and 24 people without. The sample was evenly balanced between men and women. Participants were encouraged to eat 1250 calories per day more than their requirement – similar to what can occur over the Christmas holidays.

At the end, those with a family history had gained 3.4 kg compared with 2.2 kg for those without. All participants were provided with support to lose the weight thereafter.

New Early Human Identified

Image of skull of Homo gautengensis

Partial reconstruction of a skull of Homo gautengensis, a two million year old human species. Credit: Darren Curnoe

By Stephen Luntz

The human family tree is turning bushy with the announcement of yet another new species named Homo gautengensis by University of NSW anthropologist Dr Darren Curnoe.

H. gautengensis lived around the same time and place as “the missing link” Australopithecus sediba (AS, June 2010 pp.14–17), and is a closer relative of ours, belonging to our genus. Nevertheless, publication of the finding in HOMO – Journal of Comparative Human Biology has aroused much less media interest than A. sediba, which Curnoe attributes to the new species being a reclassification of previously known fossils rather than a new find.

Dwarf Planets Are Not So Rare

By Stephen Luntz

The number of dwarf planets in the solar system may be ten times higher than previously thought.

The point at which objects in the solar system become dwarf planets has been wrongly estimated, a new study has found, potentially increasing the number of these objects in the solar system.

Homeopathy Evidence Diluted

By Stephen Luntz

A study has poured more cold water on the evidence for homeopathy.

A study published in the Medical Journal of Australia has confirmed the mountain of evidence that homeopathy is scam, not science.

Although many studies have found that homeopathy lacks any benefits other than those offered by placebos, including a review by the UK’s House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (see p.38), a few have been used by the alternative medicine industry to make claims of scientific evidence. These claims have provided a fig leaf to medical insurers that have bowed to consumer demand for coverage of homeopathic treatments as part of their policies.

Ancient Human DNA Sequenced

By Stephen Luntz

The oldest complete sequence of human DNA has been determined from 4000-year-old human hair.

The oldest complete sequence of human DNA has been determined from 4000-year-old human hair found in Greenland. The male individual from which it was taken was
part of the Saqqaq, a cultural grouping that disappeared almost 3000 years ago.